In the wake of trade-based globalisation followed by financial globalisation, a large volume of capital began moving from developing to advanced countries. This has resulted in relatively poor developing countries effectively becoming net creditors to the rest of the world. Reversing this massive outflow of capital requires governments to strengthen governance in all its dimensions and have closer international collaboration to tighten the regulatory oversight of tax havens for greater transparency
On November 8, when Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced to India, the demonetisation of high-value currency notes, he specifically referred to the use of Hawala and fake Indian currency notes for terrorist financing. The hawala system to move funds globally for terrorist financing is huge, secretive, and layered—and a challenge for national security agencies.